This includes a new advice website and local family hubs in England, after a survey found more than half of parents in the country were confused by how much to feed their baby.
The campaign highlights how to know when a baby is ready to be weaned.
Neil O'Brien, minister for primary care, said: "The first 1,001 days are crucial for a child's development."
He added: "Weaning can influence a baby's eating habits and their health later in life.
"This campaign will ensure parents have the confidence to introduce their babies to solid food at the appropriate time, and provide practical advice and a support hub to ensure their diets include a wide variety of foods."
Mr O'Brien added that there would be more than £300m of government money invested in 75 family hubs across England to give support to parents and carers.
A survey of 2,000 parents of children aged three to 18 months found nearly half the adults did not know the right time to wean their baby. The same number had mistaken behaviours like looking at or grabbing food to mean the baby was ready to eat solids.
Nearly half of those surveyed thought the weaning process should start at about five months or earlier - but the NHS guidelines show solid food should be introduced from about six months, alongside breast milk or infant formula.
A baby is ready for their first solid food if they can
* stay in a sitting position, holding their head steady
* co-ordinate their eyes, hands and mouth so they can look at their food, pick it up and put it in their mouth
* swallow food, rather than spit it back out
With data from the latest National Child Measurement Programme showing that a quarter of all children start school overweight, the government hopes this new campaign will help parents promote healthy eating at home.
The campaign has been backed by child nutritionist Charlotte Stirling Reed, who as a parent herself said "weaning can be very confusing and overwhelming".
She added that parents can "can start with single vegetables and fruits that are mashed or blended", and "preparing food from scratch is the easiest and cheapest way to create healthier meals for my children".