London Daily

Focus on the big picture.
Wednesday, Feb 08, 2023

The messages that survived civilisation's collapse

The messages that survived civilisation's collapse

The Sumerians, Maya and other ancient cultures created texts that have lasted hundreds and even thousands of years. Here's what they can teach us about crafting an immortal message.

More than 2,000 years ago, in a temple in the city of Borsippa in ancient Mesopotamia, in what is now modern-day Iraq, a student was doing his homework. His name was Nabu-kusurshu, and he was training to be a temple brewer. His duties involved brewing beer for religious offerings, but also, learning to keep administrative records on clay tablets in cuneiform script, and preserving ancient hymns by making copies of worn-out tablets. These daily tasks, and his devotion to beer, writing and knowledge, made him part of an extraordinarily resilient literary legacy.

Cuneiform had already been around for roughly 3,000 years by the time Nabu-kusurshu picked up his reed stylus. It was invented by the Sumerians, who initially used it to record rations of food – and indeed, beer – paid to workers or delivered to temples. Over time, the Sumerian texts became more complex, recording beautiful myths and songs – including one celebrating the goddess of brewing, Ninkasi, and her skilled use of "the fermenting vat, which makes a pleasant sound". When Sumerian gradually slid out of common use, and was replaced by the more modern Akkadian, scribes cleverly wrote long lists of signs in both languages, essentially creating ancient dictionaries, to make sure the wisdom of the oldest tablets would always be understood.

Nabu-kusurshu's generation, who would have spoken Akkadian or maybe Aramaic in everyday life, was among the last to use the cuneiform script. But he probably assumed that he was just one ordinary young writer in a long line of writers, preserving cuneiform for many more generations, under the benevolent eye of Nabu, the god of writing and "scribe of the universe". He faithfully copied the old tablets, noting down for example that a Sumerian sign pronounced "u", could mean marriage gift, burglar, or buttocks. He wrote on the tablets that he copied them "for his own study", perhaps as practice or scholarship, and placed them in the temple as an offering.

"He's learning how to write, and learning these lists, alongside other things, and then dedicating his work to the god Nabu and the temple," says Jay Crisostomo, a professor of ancient Near Eastern civilisations and languages at the University of Michigan, who has studied Nabu-kusurshu's tablets in depth.

It was these humble lists, quietly written in the shadow of a giant ziggurat – a pyramid-shaped stepped temple tower – that would earn Nabu-kusurshu immortality.

A bilingual cuneiform tablet, listing Sumerian and Akkadian words. Scribes wrote such lists to ensure that the older Sumerian tablets would always be understood


Many of us may daydream about writing a message that can be read in thousands of years' time, be it to share wonderful poetry with future generations, or warn them about the hazards lurking in nuclear waste.

What's easy to forget is that this is not a mere thought experiment. People have successfully crafted immortal messages – or at least, very long-lasting ones – in the past.

Some of them, like Nabu-kusurshu, even left us a key to entire civilisations.

In the 19th Century, scholars were racing to decipher a mysterious language found on cracked, charred tablets dug up from the sand-covered ruins of Mesopotamian temples and palaces: Sumerian, which had been thoroughly lost and forgotten.

What made the challenge particularly tricky is that Sumerian is not related to any other known language. But the scholars had recently deciphered Akkadian, thanks to its link to surviving languages such as Arabic and Hebrew. And they had also found the ancient scribes' Sumerian-Akkadian clay lists, which they could use as a dictionary.

Among them, one set of tablets stood out for its pristine condition and "distinctive fine script": Nabu-kusurshu's tablets. They were found next to some broken pillars and bricks when archeologists opened the long-buried rooms of the temple at Borsippa around 1880.

"A lot of what we know about Sumerian is via this one man, Nabu-kusurshu," says Crisostomo. He believes the young scribe, who would have been in his late teens or early 20s, produced nearly a quarter of all known copies of a bilingual sign list that proved crucial in the decipherment.

To give you an idea of the size of his impact: these lists helped unlock Sumerian records spanning three millennia of history, including the Sumerians' pioneering use of the wheel, and the 60-minute hour. Altogether, across different languages, there are more than a million cuneiform texts from the ancient Near East – and we can read them thanks to eternal clues left by ordinary scribes like Nabu-kusurshu.

What helped their messages survive, and stay meaningful, over such a long period of time? And how might we use that knowledge to craft our own messages to the future?

A tablet inscribed with the Linear B script, used on Crete and the Greek mainland before the arrival of the alphabet


Most thoughts and ideas expressed by humans barely survive the present moment. History is strewn with references to those that vanished – not just individual messages, but entire languages, and with them, the memories of the societies that spoke them. Who remembers Gutian, a language of ancient Iran? Thousands of years ago, someone gave a Gutian translator a payment of beer, according to a Sumerian clay receipt. And that's pretty much all we know about Gutian. Whatever the Gutian people felt, whatever they wished to tell the world, is lost. All that remains of them are some rather unflattering descriptions by the Sumerians.

On the other hand, there are messages that outlasted centuries of warfare, invasions, and natural disasters. Even though the Spanish destroyed mountains of Maya books, the script survived in rare bark manuscripts and on stone monuments, extending a lifeline to ancient myths and prophecies.

What's the secret of such extrordinary literary longevity? I put that question to three experts on some of on the world's oldest languages and scripts, and also asked them how they would write their own message to the future, based on their insights. All of them mentioned certain material aspects, of course – clay and stone are more durable than paper or digital recording methods. The right climate and environment help with the preservation: cuneiform tablets were in fact often baked and hardened by the fire of burning cities under attack. But the experts' most compelling insights were about the writers themselves.

When talking about writing from the distant past, it can be tempting to portray it as some sort of accidental pile of historical debris. Nabu-kusurshu's legacy, for example, may seem like a fluke of history: the brewer's tablets that turned out to be a kind of Rosetta Stone. But according to the scholars, it's not all due to luck and coincidence. Instead, there are certain habits, values and decisions that may not exactly guarantee literary immortality – but at least, improve its chances.

Of course, the best way to test these factors would be to run a controlled experiment, where different scripts are exposed to challenges – say, the collapse of civilisation – to see which survives. We don't have anything quite like that in history. But we have something that comes a bit close.

In Greece, writing died out after disaster struck the literate elite around 1200 BC – and it was then reintroduced much later


The people who forgot how to write


Picture two islands in the Bronze-Age Mediterranean, with sheep peacefully grazing amid olive groves. On both islands, people are busy at work writing on slabs of clay. One island is Cyprus, close to the Near Eastern coast. The other is Crete. On Crete, and on the Greek mainland, an elite called the Mycenaeans are in charge. They write in Greek, using a script called Linear B.

Then, from around 1400BC, disaster strikes the Mycenaeans. First, their palace on Crete is destroyed. Some 200 years later, the palaces on the mainland are also destroyed.

Cyprus is also hit by a catastrophe – historians are still debating what exactly happened. There's some sort of economic collapse, settlements are abandoned, new groups of people arrive from abroad. But even as life changes dramatically, the locals continue to write their script, and experiment with new ones, borrowing techniques from different literate cultures around them.

On Crete and the Greek mainland, however, once the palaces are gone, writing stops. It dies out. Not just Linear B, but also the fundamental knowledge of literacy, just seems to vanish. It's as if an entire society forgets how to write.

This is particularly striking given that Crete was where Europe's oldest scripts evolved, dating back to at least 1800BC. But that fine legacy is wiped out when the Mycenaean elite collapses.

And when people in Greece begin to write again, centuries later, it's in a totally different script, the alphabet, imported from abroad. Their own, older tradition is lost forever.

"In Greece, once you've lost the Mycenaean palaces, there just doesn't seem to be any literacy at all for a while," says Philippa Steele, a senior research associate in classics at the University of Cambridge, and an expert on the ancient scripts of Crete, Cyprus and Greece. "Between 1200 [BC] and around the 8th Century [BC], there's nothing as far as we can tell. While Cyprus remains literate throughout that whole period."

What caused the difference?

We can't say for sure, of course. But Steele believes that it may have to do with how the two communities treated the skill of writing.

Philippa Steele, an expert in ancient scripts at the University of Cambridge, holds her clay tablet with a message to the future


Shared scribbles


On Cyprus, there is abundant archaeological evidence of what Steele calls "reflexes of literacy": scribbles by ordinary people who adapted writing to their own uses, such as merchants marking their pots. This widespread, informal experimenting may have made writing more resilient, she suggests. Even after the destruction and upheaval, and the arrival of new people, the locals on Cyprus held on to their script, and wrote it on little clay figurines that they offered to their gods. Later on, they also wrote different scripts next to each other, for example pairing their own Cypriot syllabic script with Phoenician – which eventually made decipherment easier.

But on Crete and the Greek mainland, Linear B never seeped out into the wider society, judging by the archaeological finds, Steele says. The Mycenaean scribes were anonymous, and their art was not particularly celebrated. "There are just zero depictions of people writing, and zero depictions of things that were involved in writing."

Nor were there giant Linear B texts written across rock faces or palace walls, which might have reminded people that there was this valuable skill called writing. Instead, Linear B led a hidden life inside the palaces. And when the palaces fell, it had no other niche where it could survive. As Steele concludes: "If literacy is restricted, it might be easier for a writing system to die out if its context of use disappears." These insights from the past may help us solve pressing problems in the present, she argues, such as saving modern-day endangered writing systems.

Linear B did have a second life, however. It took scholars a long time to decipher it, because it was not written alongside any surviving scripts. But they eventually succeeded in the 1950s, and today, much of it can be read.

The message should be multilingual, so there is a better chance for at least one of the languages to still be spoken in the distant future – Philippa Steele


I ask Steele how she would write an immortal message. She gets back to me not only with an answer, but with an actual message, in tablet form.

It is made of clay, for durability, "which should ideally be fired", though she used air-dried modelling clay. It is multilingual, "so there is a better chance for at least one of the languages to still be spoken in the distant future – plus a multilingual message gives more clues for future decipherers than a monolingual message would". (Multilingual means several languages written side by side, as in the Rosetta Stone, or Nabu-kusurshu's tablets).

She chose a simple message: "My name is Pippa Steele and I wrote this in Cambridge in the year 2022."

With the help of friends, she wrote it in English, Spanish, Chinese and Arabic, since those are widely spoken languages globally, and are also all well-represented locally: "I could of course have added many others."

Mayan hieroglyphics in Palenque, Mexico


The Maya messages that want to be read


One lesson from ancient Crete and Cyprus might be that to write an everlasting message, it's a good idea to start with ensuring people can make sense of it in the present.

As those working in decipherment often point out, that was the original purpose of most scribes: to communicate. Ancient civilisations usually didn't intend to create an un-crackable code, quite the contrary.

"A code exists so it stays secret and can only be read by certain groups," says Christian Prager, an expert on classic Mayan at Bonn University and part of a team compiling an online database and dictionary of the script. "With the Maya script, which was so publicly present on stelae [big inscribed stone pillars] and buildings, it's the opposite. It was there to be understood."

The Maya script was used for about 2,000 years, and Maya languages are still spoken in Mexico, Belize, Guatemala and Honduras. The earliest hieroglyphs date to about 250BC. People continued to write the script in secret even after the Spanish conquest, into the late 17th Century AD. Today, about 60% of the hieroglyphs are deciphered, enough to understand the gist of all the texts, Prager says.

Within three days, you can read the Maya script – Christian Prager


While the work on each sign can be slow and painstaking, modern scholars are assisted by long-dead Maya scribes, who added little markers to their signs to give a clue to their meaning. Recently, one of these markers – the one for "stone" – helped Prager and his colleagues figure out the sign for "pecking a new stela". The link to living Maya languages has also played a huge part in the decipherment.

Even though only a few people in the Maya world knew how to write, Prager believes a relatively wide range of people would have been able to grasp basic messages, such as a portrait of a king and his name displayed on a stela in a market square: "I am sure they were able to say, this is the name of the king. Because when we teach courses in the Maya script today, within three days, you can read the Maya script. Maybe not the fine linguistic details, but you can recognise sequences of signs."

Carving your name on a big stone, ideally next to a self-portrait, seems to be a truly timeless, enduringly meaningful format, not just in the Maya world: king's names and the word "king" are often the first to be figured out in undeciphered scripts.

A 12th-Century Maya manuscript housed at the Saxon State Library in Dresden, Germany


A living organism


The Maya script may not just be figuratively immortal, but literally so. For the Maya, it had a life of its own.

"The script was an organism in itself," Prager says. "You can see it when you look at the hieroglyphs, there is something animated about them. The classic Maya saw many everyday objects as animated, including their script. Stelae were given individual names – that says a lot about how they were valued, and how much they were, and are, part of the culture." When a stela was no longer used, it was given funerary rites.

These deeper beliefs have some useful practical consequences when it comes to reading classic Mayan today. Maya scribes kept the shape of the signs exactly the same from the earliest stone inscriptions to the last bark books, for example. It probably had to do with the scribes' desire "to use an unchanged writing system, just like their ancestors," Prager says. "It's astonishing, it's something you very rarely find [among ancient scripts]." Rather handily, it means that once you know the script, you can read Maya documents from all these different time periods.

When I later ask Prager how he would write a message so that it can be read in thousands of years time, Prager responds with a Maya level of scale and ambition: "The message would have to be monumental and made of stone, to withstand the wind, weather and humans!"

The Great Wall of China is the best example of an everlasting message, he says – even at the time it was built, it showed enemies the borders of the Chinese realm, and the political and economic power of those who built it.

For his own message, he envisages "landscape-spanning, monumental buildings that can't be erased", inscribed with a text in all modern and ancient languages that is set into the mega-building every 100 metres. "One of those messages will outlast future catastrophes," he concludes.

A Neo-Assyrian relief of a man from Nimrud, northern Mesopotamia


The brewer's list


By the time Nabu-kusurshu, the young brewer of Borsippa, was working on his lists around 450BC, many of the languages that had once filled the Near East had already vanished, including once-mighty languages like Hurrian and Hittite. Amorite, spoken by powerful nomad-kings in ancient Syria, and mentioned in ancient letters as a highly useful language to learn, disappeared with barely a written trace.

And yet, Sumerian – arguably the most impractical of them all, once it had fallen out of daily use – lived on and on. From about 2000BC, "nobody spoke Sumerian, but they were still writing it. And that's part of my extreme fascination with this," says Crisostomo. "What made it continue?"

The answer may lie in those very first cuneiform signs, pressed into clay by the Sumerians. From the start, writing was associated with the Sumerians, Crisostomo says. Over time, it kept that association with an ancient culture and its gods, cities and legends, and with the power that came with that.

King after king used that association to legitimise their own rule, even if they had no Sumerian ancestry themselves. They composed Sumerian songs predicting their words would be treasured by people "in the distant future". By collecting tablets, boasting of their Sumerian knowledge, commissioning scribes, or being portrayed with a stylus in their belt, they too became part of that immortal lineage.

"It's about claiming authority that goes all the way back to the beginnings of writing, and the beginnings of knowledge," says Crisostomo.

Young Iraqis play soccer in the shadow of the ruins of a ziggurat in Borsippa, Iraq


That literary heritage ranged high and low, and included hymns and omens, but also, very old drinking songs. As in the Maya world, the link between writing and power was advertised through monumental inscriptions. Nabu-kusurshu's tablets were sustained and protected by an entire culture.

But there was, perhaps, also an element of individual choice. Nabu-kusurshu appears to have taken pride in his writing, and taken care to perfect it, given how exceptionally neat it was.

Crisostomo is scouring the world's museums for more of Nabu-kusurshu's tablets, of which about 24 have been found. He has studied every detail of the brewer's handwriting, from how he shaped his signs to how he spaced his lines. "It's things like that where you start to really feel like you know these people."

Despite his own love for written language, Crisostomo says his message for the future would probably be an image – so that "it could transcend the need for language", and avoid the pitfalls of decipherment.

It appears, then, that a good rule of thumb is to make your message to the future either gargantuan enough that it can't be ignored, or so small that it slips through history almost unnoticed, perhaps protected by its low profile. A visual or contextual cue seems to help, be it by adding a picture, or placing it somewhere relevant to its meaning – like a temple or monument. And the scholars appeared to find it obvious that it was better to use an existing language, than try to make up an artificial, future-proof one. After all, real languages have cultures to love and support them, providing future decipherers with a wealth of clues and meaning.

In fact, cuneiform is experiencing a renaissance these days, as a young generation of Iraqis learn and experiment with it. A similar spirit is infusing the Maya hieroglyphs with new life. Native Maya speakers use it to make art, and put up new stelae to commemorate important events.

That human connection and fellowship, across vast stretches of time, perhaps forms the final step for an immortal message. As much effort as we may put into it, we can only trust that at the other end of the line, there'll be another person hearing our faint voice, and caring enough to listen.

Crisostomo often remembers this when he works on ancient tablets, some marked by thumb-prints of long-dead scribes. "Sometimes you'll sit there and you put your thumb right in that same space, and you think, 'OK, maybe this person was holding this tablet just like this, 4,000 years ago, and they're holding it and they're writing it, and I'm sitting here, reading what they wrote.'"

Newsletter

Related Articles

London Daily
Close
0:00
0:00
2 earthquakes in Turkey killed over 2,300 people
You're Beautiful - James Blunt (Boyce Avenue acoustic cover)
Powerful Earthquake Strikes Turkey and Syria, Killing More Than 1,300 People.
You Are So Beautiful
Turkish photographer Ugur Gallenkus portrays two different worlds within a single image. Brilliant work
Postmodern Jukebox European Tour Version
Tennessee Bill Would Imprison People for 3 Years If They 'Lie' About Rape to Get an Abortion.
An old French tune (by Georges Brassens) Pomplamoose ft. John Schroeder
Charlie Munger, calls for a ban on cryptocurrencies in the US, following China's lead
Sattahip Motor Show 20
Shell reports highest profits in 115 years
SONATE AU CLAIR DE LUNE - Moonlight sonata
EU found a way to use frozen Russian funds
A kiss to build a dream on
First generation unopened iPhone set to fetch more than $50,000 at auction.
Wiz Khalifa - See You Again ft. Charlie Puth, Furious
WARNING GRAPHIC CONTENT - US Memphis Police murdering innocent Tyre Nichols
Wonderful Tonight - Eric Clapton (Boyce Avenue acoustic cover)
Almost 30% of professionals say they've tried ChatGPT at work
Mean Blues
Interpol seeks woman who ran elaborate exam cheating scam in Singapore
La Chansonnette
What is ChatGPT?
Pattaya Addicts
Bill Gates is ‘very optimistic’ about the future: ‘Better to be born 20 years from now...than any time in the past’
Franz Liszt - Liebestraum - Love Dream
China is opening up for foreign investors.
Dream a little dream of me
Tesla reported record profits and record revenues for 2022
Tu Vuo' Fa' L'Americano - Hetty & the Jazzato Band
Germany confirms it will provide Ukraine with Leopard 2 tanks
Unchained Melody sung like you've NEVER heard!
Prince Andrew and Virginia Giuffre Photo Is Fake: Ghislaine Maxwell
Dave Brubeck - Take Five
Opinion | Israel’s Supreme Court Claims a Veto on Democracy
Édith Piaf - Non, Je Ne Regrette Rien (Sofie)
Moonwalker Buzz Aldrin Gets Married On His 93rd Birthday
Rondo Alla Turca
Who’s Threatening Israeli Democracy?
Kiss of fire
Federal Reserve Probes Goldman’s Consumer Business
Ed Sheeran - Perfect (Amadeus violin cover instrumental)
China's first population drop in six decades
Tom Jones - I´ll Never Fall In Love Again 1967, 1989, 2001
Microsoft is finalising plans to become the latest technology giant to reduce its workforce during a global economic slowdown
Israel Cachao López - Guajira Clásica
Israelis rally in three cities against Netanyahu legal reforms
Edward Maya - Stereo Love (feat. Vika Jigulina) (Extended Mix)
China's foreign ministry branch in Hong Kong urges British gov't to stop the biased and double standards Hong Kong report
Strauss - Radetzky March - Karajan
Tesla slashes prices globally by as much as 20 percent
La vie en rose
Japan prosecutors indict man for ex-PM Shinzo Abe murder
Despacito (Piano Cover) - Peter Bence
1.4 Million Copies Of Prince Harry's Memoir 'Spare' Sold On 1st Day In UK
The Temptations - My Girl (Smokey Robinson Tribute) 2006 Kennedy Cent
After Failing To Pay Office Rent, Twitter May Sell User Names
Orlando Cachaito Lopez Redencion
Lisa Marie Presley, singer and daughter of Elvis, dies aged 54
Edith Piaf - NON, JE NE REGRETTE RIEN
FIFA president questioned by prosecutors
RADETZKY MARCH-2008-Wien, New Year Concert
Britain's Sunak breaks silence and admits using private healthcare
Only you (And you alone)
Dirty bomb fears as URANIUM is found in cargo at Heathrow
Beautiful in White x Canon in D (Piano Cover by Riyandi Kusuma)
Hype and backlash as Harry's memoir goes on sale. Unnamed royal source says prince 'kidnapped by cult of psychotherapy and Meghan'
Strangers In The Night
Saudi Arabia set to overtake India as fastest-growing major economy this year 
Charles Aznavour - La Boheme
Google and Facebook’s dominance in digital ads challenged by rapid ascent of Amazon and TikTok
Summer time
FTX fraud investigators are digging deeper into Sam Bankman-Fried's inner circle – and reportedly have ex-engineer Nishad Singh in their sights
Sting and Stevie Wonder - Fragile (from Sting's 60th birthday concert)
TikTok CEO Plans to Meet European Union Regulators
Aux Champs Elysees
UK chaos: Hong Kong emigrants duped by false prospectus
Stand By Me - Ben E. King (Boyce Avenue acoustic cover)
France has banned the online sale of paracetamol until February, citing ongoing supply issues
La Mer (Beyond the Sea) – Avalon Jazz Band
Japan reportedly to give families 1 million yen per child to move out of Tokyo
She
Saudi Arabia’s female ambassadors: Who are the five women representing the Kingdom?
Nathalie Song by Enzo Petrachi Stjepan Hauser Cello
Will Canada ever become a real democracy?
Shape of My Heart - Sting (Boyce Avenue acoustic cover)
Hong Kong property brokerages slash payrolls in choppy market
Radiohead - Creep
U.S. Moves to Seize Robinhood Shares, Silvergate Accounts Tied to FTX
Quizás,Quizás,Quizás - Andrea Bocelli - Jennifer Lopez
Effect of EU sanctions on Moscow is ‘less than zero’ – Belgian MEP
Perhaps, Perhaps, Perhaps - Multi-Couples
Coinbase to Pay $100 Million in Settlement With New York Regulator
Pentatonix Havana
FTX assets worth $3.5bn held by Bahamas securities regulator
Paula Cole - Autumn Leaves
A Republican congressman-elect is under investigation in New York after he admitted he lied about his education and work experience.
Oscar Benton Bensonhurst Blues
Brazilian football legend Pele, arguably the greatest player ever, has died at the age of 82.
OH NANANA vs ABUSADAMENTE
Nina Simone - ”I Put A Spell On You”. Vezi aici cum cântă Jeremy Ragsd
NIGHTWISH - The Phantom Of The Opera
Motorshow 2016 Tanjay Negros Oriental
Monica Bellucci - Ti Amo
Michael Jackson - Billie Jean Milena The Voice France 2018
Michael Buble (Help Me Make It Through The Night) feat Loren Allred
Memories Canon In D - Maroon 5 (Boyce Avenue piano acoustic cover)
Matteo Simoni - Marina
Maroon 5 - One More Night
Maroon 5 - Memories
Mark Knopfler - Brothers In Arms (Berlin 2007 Live)
Mark Knopfler & Emmylou Harris - Romeo And Juliet (Real Live Roadrunni
Marina, Marina - The LUCKY DUCKIES intimist live concert at Guimarães
Major Lazer & DJ Snake – Lean On Mauranne The Voice France 2016
Love Theme from Romeo and Juliet - Joslin - Henri Mancini, Nino Rota
LoLa & Hauser - Love Story
Linkin Park Jay-Z - Numb Encore (Live 8 2005)
Hallelujah Mennel Ibtissem, The Voice France Leonard Cohen
Leonard Cohen - Dance Me to the End of Love
Leonard Cohen & Natasha Rostova - Dance me to the end of love
La casa de papel - Bella Ciao
La Camisa Negra
L'italiano (Toto Cutugno) - The Gypsy Queens
Juanes - La Camisa Negra
Jonathan and Charlotte - Britain's Got Talent 2012 Live Semi Final - U
John Powell - Assassin's Tango
Joe Cocker - You Can Leave Your Hat On (LIVE in Dortmund)
Joe Cocker - Unchain My Heart 2002 Live
Joe Cocker - A Whiter Shade Of Pale
Jay Z & Alicia Keys - Empire State of Mind LIVE
Jason Mraz - Im Yours (live)
Jarrod Radnich - Bohemian Rhapsody - Virtuosic Piano Solo
James Blunt - You're Beautiful
James Blunt - You're Beautiful & Bonfire Heart (Live at The Nobel Peac)
If You Go Away - Helen Merrill & Stan Getz (Tribute to Virna Lisi)
I'LL BE MISSING YOU
I Say a Little Prayer
Hotel California ( Eagles ) 1994 Live
Historia de un amor - Luz Casal. Vezi interpretarea Biancăi Sumanariu
Here Comes The Sun - The Beatles (Boyce Avenue acoustic cover) on Spot
Heart - Stairway to Heaven Led Zeppelin - Kennedy Center Honors
HAVANA by Camila Cabello Zumba Pre Cooldown TML Crew Kramer Pastra
HAUSER and Señorita - I Will Always Love You
HAUSER - Waka Waka
HAUSER - Sway
HAUSER - Lambada
HAUSER - Historia de un Amor
HAUSER - Despacito
Great Pretender
Georgia May Foote & Giovanni Pernice Samba to 'Volare' - Strictly Come
Gary Moore - Still Got The Blues
GIPSY KINGS VOLARE Penelope Cruz
Fugees - Killing Me Softly With His Song
French Latino - Historia de un Amor
For A Few Dollars More The Danish National Symphony Orchestra (Live)
Flashdance • What a Feeling • Irene Cara
Filip Rudan - “Someone You Loved” Audicija 4 The Voice Hrvatska Sez
Eric Clapton - Wonderful Tonight
Enya - Only Time
Enrique Iglesias - Bailando (English Version) ft. Sean Paul
Enrique Iglesias - Bailamos
Elena Yerevan Historia de un amor
Ed Sheeran - Shape of You (Official Music Video)
Ed Sheeran - Perfect Symphony [with Andrea Bocelli]
Ed Sheeran - Perfect (Official Music Video)
Easy On Me - Adele (Boyce Avenue 90’s style piano acoustic cover) on S
ERA - Ameno
ELENA YEREVAN- Cancion Del Mariachi-IN STUDIO-2017 DPR
Dust In The Wind - Kansas (Boyce Avenue acoustic cover)
Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood
Despacito x Shape Of You - Pentatonix
Deep Purple - Child In Time - Live (1970)
David Foster When A Man Loves A WomanIt's A Mans World (SealMichael Bo
Dance me to the end of Love ( Pi-Air Design )
Coolio - Gangsta's Paradise (feat. L.V.) [Official Music Video]
Conquest Of Paradise (Vangelis), played on Böhm Emporio organ
Cielito Lindo
Chico & The Gypsies - Bamboleo
Canción Del Mariachi - Antonio Banderas, Los Lobos • Desperado
Camila Cabello - Havana (Audio) ft. Young Thug
Camila Cabello - Havana ( cover by J.Fla )
California Dreamin' - The Mamas & The Papas José Feliciano (Boyce Ave
Buster Benton - Money Is The Name of The Game
Hallelujah Pentatonix
Bobby McFerrin - Don't Worry Be Happy (Official Music Video)
Bob Dylan - Knockin' On Heaven's Door Emilia The Voice Kids France
Besame Mucho - Cesaria Evora
Ben E. King - Stand by Me Sax Cover Alexandra Ilieva Thomann
Bella Ciao
Bella Ciao - INSTRUMENTAL
Beautiful in White x Canon in D (Piano Cover by Riyandi Kusuma)
Bad Romance - Vintage 1920's Gatsby Style Lady Gaga Cover ft. Ariana Savalas & Sarah Reich(1)
BELLA CIAO 2020 - KARAOKE ITALIANO
BAMBOLEO - Gipsy Kings • Antonio Banderas, Katya Virshilas
BAILANDO (original)
Awesome Ukrainian yodeler - SOFIA SHKIDCHENKO (with English subtitles)
Avicii - The Nights
Atom - The Great Gig in the Sky
Aretha Franklin - (You Make Me Feel Like) A Natural Woman (Official Ly
Antonio Banderas - Cancion del Mariachi (Desperado)
André Rieu - Zorba's Dance (Sirtaki)
André Rieu - Can't Help Falling In Love
André Rieu & Mirusia - Ave Maria
Andrew Reyes Elton John - Don't Let The Sun Go Down The Voice 2020 (
Andreas Kümmert Whiter Shade Of Pale The Voice of Germany 2013 Showd
And I Love You So
All About That Bass - Postmodern Jukebox European Tour Version
Alan Walker - Faded (Piano Cover)
Ain't No Sunshine -- Bill Withers (cover by Canen 12 y.o.)
African music
Adriana Vidović - “Creep” Audicija 4 The Voice Hrvatska Sezona 3
Adriana Vidović - “Believer” Nokaut 3 The Voice Hrvatska Sezona 3
A Fistful of Dollars - The Danish National Symphony Orchestra and Tuva
4 Beautiful Soundtracks Relaxing Piano [10min]
2CELLOS - Whole Lotta Love vs. Beethoven 5th Symphony [OFFICIAL VIDEO]
2CELLOS - Smooth Criminal (Live at Suntory Hall, Tokyo)
2CELLOS - Smells Like Teen Spirit [Live at Sydney Opera House]
2CELLOS - Despacito [OFFICIAL VIDEO]
13 Year Old Girl Playing Il Silenzio (The Silence) - André Rieu
094.All About That Bass
00 - SADNESS PART 1
(Ghost) Riders In the Sky (American Outlaws Live at Nassau Coliseum, 1
(Everything I Do) I Do It For You - Bryan Adams (Boyce Avenue ft. Conn
What a wonderful world
Moon river
×