China has criticised a Dutch plan to restrict the export of semiconductor equipment - a vital part of the high-tech supply chain.
The Netherlands' government announced on Wednesday it would introduce limits to "protect national security", following similar measures brought by the US last year.
For the American curbs to be effective, other key suppliers had to be on board - and the Netherlands is home to a major supplier to semiconductor manufacturers.
ASML - Europe's biggest tech firm, based in Veldhoven - has sold more than €8bn (£7.1bn) of advanced machinery used to make semiconductors to Chinese customers since 2014.
The microchips are key to everything from military hardware to the smartphone in your pocket, and are a key battleground in the US and China's increasingly bitter trading relationship.
A global shortage during pandemic lockdowns led to car factories being closed and sought-after gadgets like PlayStations being incredibly hard to find.
Chinese foreign ministry spokesperson Mao Ning said it was "firmly opposed" to the Dutch decision to move in line with Washington, saying it would "intervene and limit normal economic and trade exchanges".
The US move in October required chip-making companies that used American tech to make chips - even those not based in the country - to acquire special licences to export to China.
Since then, the White House has been pushing the Netherlands and Japan to adopt a similar stance.
Japan's trade minister, Yasutoshi Nishimura, said it had not yet decided whether to do so.
"For national security reasons, we constantly review export rules," he told MPs.