Prime Minister Liz Truss has rejected a referendum, but the first minister said this was "completely indefensible".
The Supreme Court is to debate whether MSPs could set up a vote alone, and Ms Sturgeon has said she could use a future election to settle the issue.
The SNP leader said the "vast majority" of Scots would take part in any vote.
Ms Truss has said "no, no, no" to the idea of a referendum, but Ms Sturgeon said this rejection was "one of the most powerful arguments for Scotland being an independent country".
The SNP leader was speaking to the BBC's Laura Kuenssberg ahead of her leader speech at the SNP conference on Monday.
She provoked controversy by saying "I detest the Tories", comments which were branded "dangerous language" by Conservative minister Nadim Zahawi.
She later clarified her comments, saying: "I was not referring to individuals or certainly not to people who vote Tory but I was referring to Tory policies and values that do a lot of damage"
Asked if she regretted her choice of words, she said "no".
She also spoke of her plans for a referendum in just over a year's time, and told Ms Kuenssberg that she was "confident that can happen".
The first minister said she did not want to pre-judge the deliberations of the Supreme Court, which is to examine whether MSPs can pass legislation to set up a referendum without Westminster's backing.
Former deputy president of the court Lord Hope told BBC Scotland's Sunday Show that the court could hand down a verdict within six to eight weeks.
Ms Sturgeon said the "vast majority" of Scots would take part in a "lawful referendum" if the court paved the way for that, regardless of what position UK ministers take.
And she said her "last resort" option would be to use a future general election as a single-issue vote on independence.
She said: "That is not my preference, but we have to have an alternative.
"If the route by which it would be right to consider and decide this issue - a lawful constitutional referendum - is blocked by Westminster because they fear the democratic choice of the people of Scotland then for me and the SNP the choice is simple.
"We put the case to people in an election or we give up on Scottish democracy. And I want to be clear today I will never give up on Scottish democracy."
Ms Sturgeon said she would "try to work constructively" with Ms Truss as prime minister.
However, she also said "I detest the Tories and everything they stand for" when asked if she would rather have Labour in government.
She said she was "really disappointed" that Labour leader Sir Keir Starmer had "thrown in the towel" over Brexit.
She added: "Being better than the Tories is not a high bar to cross right now. We need to see more of a radical alternative from Labour, rather than a pale imitation.
"And do I think either Westminster Tory or Labour government is good enough for Scotland? My answer to that is no.
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster Nadhim Zahawi responded to Ms Sturgeon's comments on the same programme. He said: "I think that language is really dangerous.
"I prefer to work with my colleagues in Scotland on delivering the freeports, the greenports, as I want to do with (deputy first minister) John Swinney and others."
Speaking on BBC Scotland's Sunday Show, Scottish Labour leader Anas Sarwar said Ms Sturgeon comparing the two parties "insults the intelligence of voters across the country".
He said: "In the last three general elections I don't believe people thought Labour could win. I think this next election will be different.
"I think people can see that Labour can win ,and I hope Labour will win that election and that's a really different framing.
"That's why yesterday you heard the SNP conference focus their attacks on the Labour Party - it almost sounded like they preferred a Tory government."
Meanwhile the Scottish Conservatives said Ms Sturgeon was "deluding herself" that there was appetite among the public for a referendum.
MSP Donald Cameron said it was "the wrong priority at the worst possible time", instead calling for the government focus on the cost of living crisis and NHS waiting times.
Watch: Nicola Sturgeon says she is confident Scotland will become independent